Tuesday, January 11, 2011

Coffee is a Complex Type of Beverage


Coffee may be served as a beverage that is simple, but in reality is a product of complex coffee. Coffee beverages made from 1500 chemical element (about 850 and 700 volatile substances soluble substance), and when brewed will involve 53 independent variables chemistry and physics.

So it is understandable then, that science is very much about specialty coffee, including multi-disciplinary field involving the scientific knowledge in the field of genetics, argonomi, botany, physics, mathematics, chemistry, biochemistry, biology, engineering, physiology, and others.

Raw beans
Coffee science starts from the cultivation process, here are many factors involved, which affect the quality and chemical composition of coffee beans: location, high ground, the weather on the plantation, the composition of soil and fertilizer, as well as cultivation, harvesting and drying methods used .

Roasting Science (Baking)
Most of the characteristic aroma of delicious coffee produced from the roasting process. From the chemical viewpoint, the beans undergo a process called the Maillard browning reaction - a process in which water and carbon dioxide is removed and the reaction of sugars with amino acids results in the formation of new colors and flavors.
High temperature and steam pressure in the coffee bean triggers many chemical reactions involving steam or menguapnya composition of aroma, acidity and other important components of flavor.
The whole balance between these components has a high sensitivity with time, temperature and roasting techniques. The parameters controlled in the process of coffee roasting and how in-roasting is an art as well as science.

The initial stage of roasting is that when the heat transfer to take part, in other words, the beans begin to absorb heat and slowly dried to yellow. As the process continues, the savory aroma of grilled began to grow. In the second stage of roasting, the beans expand, its size becomes double, and skin color becomes brighter. Furthermore, the roasting temperatures continue to rise, the colors deepened and coffee to lose weight and grow brittle surface.
After the weight of coffee beans is increased and the CO2 is released, this process continues for a few days after roasting. The degree of roasting determines the color and flavor of coffee beans produced, which is important for coffee lovers.

Caffeine is a pharmacologically active substance of the most widely consumed in the world, and found not only in coffee but also in processed fruit and chocolate brown, as also found in 60 species of other plants. In terms of chemical, caffeine is a white crystalline substance that entered the family of alkaloids in the case of abortion, and has a bitter taste like the whole class of other alkaloids. This element directly absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract with peak blood pressure occurred approximately 30 minutes after consumption.

The amount of caffeine in a cup of coffee varies widely depending on the type, number of copies and the method of presentation; can vary from 40 mg-150 mg. The average arabica coffee beans contain about 1% caffeine, while robusta beans have twice the level of content. Contrary to popular opinion, a cup of espresso lower levels of caffeine than a cup of brewed coffee has traditionally given the fact that there is less contact time between coffee and water on the espresso.

Caffeine has been widely known to have stimulating effects that are slow and consume it to increase the activity of brain nerve. Caffeine also can delay fatigue and some studies show that caffeine also improves cognitive performance and increase the capacity of the body for sports and other physical activities.

Antioxidant Properties
Coffee contains antioxidants that are very high and in fact, is the biggest source of antioxidants in the USA according to Professor Dr. Joe Vinson of the University of Scranton. Antioxidants have been associated with a number of potential health benefits including the fight against heart disease and cancer.

Other Health Benefits
Effect of coffee on health have been widely studied although there are many differences and contradictions results for years. Most of the recent scholarly activity demonstrates the many positive benefits to health associated with drinking coffee. Additionally, coffee has been well known to increase endurance for physical and mental activity.
Coffee drinks are also many associated with the benefits to reduce the risk of liver cancer, asthma, type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's.


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